Detailed explanation of hydraulic system principles

Hydraulic system is a mechanical system based on liquid energy transfer, which transfers energy and performs mechanical tasks through the flow of liquid in pipelines and fittings. The following is a detailed explanation of the principles of the hydraulic system:

Working principle: The basic principle of a hydraulic system is to use incompressible liquid (usually oil) to transmit force. When a hydraulic device applies force, the force is transmitted to the liquid through a piston or piston rod, and the liquid cannot be compressed. Therefore, it will transmit this force to other positions in the system to perform work.

Basic components: Hydraulic systems typically include the following basic components:

Hydraulic pump: It is responsible for suction and pressurization of liquid from the reservoir.

Hydraulic reservoir (oil tank): used to store liquids and ensure stable liquid levels in the hydraulic system.

Hydraulic valve: used to control liquid flow and pressure distribution.

Hydraulic cylinder: It includes a piston and a piston rod, used to transmit force to the actuator.

Oil: Hydraulic oil is usually used as the transmission medium because it has low viscosity, good thermal conductivity, and is not easily affected by temperature changes.

Principle and function: When the hydraulic pump pressurizes the liquid and enters the hydraulic cylinder through the valve, the piston is subjected to the force of the liquid, resulting in mechanical motion. By adjusting the position and flow rate of the valve, the speed and direction of piston movement can be controlled. This principle can be used to perform various tasks, such as lifting, compressing, squeezing, pulling, and rotating.

Pressure transmission: The liquid in a hydraulic system is incompressible, so the force applied at one point is transmitted through the liquid to other points in the system. This allows the hydraulic system to transmit power over long distances without losing efficiency due to increased transmission distance.

Control system: The control of hydraulic systems is usually controlled by valves, which can be manually, electrically, or electronically operated. Electronic control systems can achieve highly precise control to meet the needs of various applications.

Advantages: Hydraulic systems have the advantages of high efficiency, high power density, smooth motion, high reliability, precise control, and strong adaptability, making them suitable for various industrial applications, such as excavators, presses, and automotive braking systems.

In summary, the working principle of hydraulic systems is based on the energy transfer principle of incompressible liquids, which achieve various mechanical tasks by controlling the flow and pressure distribution of liquids. This system is widely used in various industrial applications to provide efficient and reliable power transmission and motion control.